Monday, February 16, 2009

SAUNDARANANDA 16.4: The Four Noble Truths

baadh'-aatmakaM duHkham idaM praskataM
duHkhasya hetuH prabhav'aatmako 'yam
duHkha-kSHayo niHsaran'-aatamako 'yam
traaN-aatmako 'yaM prashamaaya maargaH

This is suffering, which is constant and akin to trouble;

This is the cause of suffering, akin to starting it;

This is cessation of suffering, akin to walking away.

And this, akin to a refuge, is a peaceable path.

Line 1 expresses the truth of SUFFERING.

Line 2 expresses the truth of the CAUSE of suffering.

Line 3 expresses the truth of CESSATION of suffering.

Line 4 is the expression of A PATH -- a path to peace and a path on which peace is each backward step.

baadha: annoyance, aggravation, trouble, strife
aatmaka: having the character of (in compounds); consisting or composed of; being akin to
duHkha (accusative, neuter): suffering, uneasiness, pain, sorrow, trouble, difficulty
idam: n. this, this here, referring to something near the speaker
prasakta: clinging to the world, mundane; continual, lasting, constant, eternal

duHkhasya (genitive): of suffering
hetu: cause, source
prabhava: m. production, source, origin, cause of existence, origination; birthplace, springing or rising or from; building up of power; instigation;
aatmaka: having the character of ; being akin to
iyam: f. this, this here
duHkha: suffering
kSHaya: loss , waste , wane , diminution , destruction , decay , wasting or wearing away (often ifc.); end , termination

niHsarana (= niH + saraNa): going out, egress
niH (prefix): out of, away from; without, free from
saraNa: going, moving, running; moving from one place to another
aatmaka: having the character of; being akin to
iyam: f. this, this here

traaNa: protecting, preserving, defence, shelter, help
aatmaka: having the character of
iyam: f. this, this here
prashamaaya = dative (expressing result and/or purpose) of prashama: calmness, tranquillity (esp. of mind), quiet, rest, cessation, extinction, abatement
maarga: the track of a wild animal, any track , road , path; a walk, journey
prashamaaya-maarga: (1) a path to peace -- a path whose end result is tranquility/peace/calmness/extinction; (2) a path for peace -- a path whose purpose is peace; (3) a path both to peace and for peace -- a path whose end and whose means is inhibition of the wrongness of blind reaction.

EH Johnston:
There is suffering which is continuous and whose essence is affliction; there is the cause of suffering whose essence is origination; there is the destruction of suffering whose essence is escape, and there is the path to tranquillity whose essence is rescuing.

Linda Covill:
--this is constant suffering, identifiable with affliction; this is the cause of suffering, identifiable with origination; this is the destruction of suffering, identifiable with escape; and this is the path to peace, identifiable with protection.

1 comment:

Uku said...


thank you for your efforts! Great work!

With palms together,