Friday, December 25, 2015

[BC26] mahā-puruṣa-vitarkāḥ




alpecchu
saṁtuṣṭi
praviveka
vīrya
smṛti
samādhi
prajñā
niṣprapañca


Introduction

The Reflections of a Great Person
Pali: mahā-purisa-vitakkā
Sanskrit: mahā-puruṣa-vitarkāḥ
Chinese: 八大人覚 
Japanesehachi-dainin-gaku
- the eight reflections of a great person - 

1 Vitakka [vi+takka] reflection, thought, thinking.
2 Mahā-puruṣa: m. a great or eminent man ; name of Gautama Buddha. Vitarka: conjecture, opinion; reasoning, deliberation, consideration.
3 Hachi-dainin-gaku is the Japanese pronuncation of the Chinese characters. 



Introduction

I have been on a solitary retreat for the past couple of weeks, studying and translating mūla-madhyamaka-kārikā -- going back to the middle of Nāgārjuna, I would like to think. One of the key words in MMK is niṣprapañca, which means something like "not philosophizing" or (in the translation of The Middle Way by the Dalai Lama) "no conceptual elaboration." Niṣprapañca is the 8th of the eight reflections under consideration now. 

Today being my 56th birthday, I thought I would take a break from MMK -- which has, if not philosophizing, a lot of difficult philosophy -- and return to the more familiar territory of the eight reflections. 

The eight reflections of a great person form the final chapter in the 95-chapter edition of Master Dogen's Shobogenzo and Zen tradition has it that they were the final teaching of the Buddha on the night before he died.

For these reasons, and also because of its many meaningful metaphors, the chapter was one that seemed particularly to draw me to it. There is an audio recording of Master Kodo Sawaki giving a lecture on the chapter, which I bought while I was in Japan and enjoyed listening to, even though I couldn't understand much of Master Kodo's commentary. I might be able to make a digital recording from the cassette tape and make it available as a podcast if anybody is interested?

One of the merits of a metaphor is that it can facilitate the transmission of real meaning in such a way that less is liable to be lost in translation. In any event, in around 2007-8, I found myself turning again and again, especially in the middle of sleepless nights, to the eight reflections. I felt like my job at that time was somehow to find clearer water further upstream. And there was no clearer water to be found, I intuited, than in the eight reflections. 

So when I obtained EH Johnston's English translation of Buddhacarita in the autumn of 2008, I scanned through the closing cantos to see if the eight reflections were recorded, and sure enough there they were in the next-to-penultimate canto, BC Canto 26. I copied out EHJ's translation and put it on my website, noting at the time:
The following is EH Johnston's translation from the Tibetan of the Buddha's final teaching, as recorded by Aśvaghoṣa. The correspondence is striking with the wording and metaphors found in the text recorded by Master Dogen in Shobogenzo Chapter 95, HACHI-DAININ-GAKU. 
I would very much like to have been able to study Aśvaghoṣa's rendering of the eight reflections in his original Sanskrit. Since that has not been possible, settling for the present on second best, I have been making a record of four other sources, and so today I have decided to publish what I have got so far. 

1. The Tibetan translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Sanskrit, together with EH Johnston's English translation (revised by me in places) which I think was to some degree based on Freidrich Weller's translation from Tibetan into German.

2. The Chinese translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Sanskrit, together with Charles Willeman's English translation from the Chinese. (I think I revised this in just a couple of places; I was intending to revise more thoroughly, before MMK took over.)
The Chinese translation is accessible online here
Charles Willemen's English translation can be found here.

3. The Anuruddha Sutta in Pali, from
Aṅguttara-Nikāya 30 (The Book of the Eights). An English translation by Thanissaro Bhikkhu can be found here.


4. The Yuikyo-gyo (Bequeathed Teaching Sūtra) in Chinese, which Dogen quoted verbatim in Shobogenzo Chap. 95, together with the Nishijima-Cross English translation published by Windbell in 1999.

Some of the metaphors and other notable elements which are common to the Tibetan and Chinese translations of BC Canto 26, and the Bequeathed Teachings Sūtra, are as follows: 

Small desire
  • is liberation's path / nirvāṇa itself 
Knowing satisfaction 
  • when sleeping/lying happily on the ground
Solitude 
  • contrasted with a flock of birds on a roosting tree
  • contrasted with an old elephant stuck in the  mud
Energy  
  • like a constant trickle of water drilling through rock 
  • like resolutely twirling the fire-stick to get fire
Mindfulness
  • like wearing armour on a battlefield
Meditative stillness 
  • like maintaining a dike/embankment so that water does not go to waste
Wisdom  
  • a boat/ship to cross the ocean of aging, sickness and death
  • a lamp/torch to dispell the darknes of ignorance 
  • a medicine for all ills 
  • an axe to fell the trees of afflictive emotions 
Not philosophizing
  •  philosophizing prevents even those who have left home from finding freedom. 
[But see comment below]


1. alpecchu


1. Small Desire
appiccha
alpecchu
少欲
(sho-yoku; small desire)

The Tibetan translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
| gaṅ źig rgya chen rnams las sdug bsṅal oṅs pa ste | | ñuṅ du dod la oṅ ba ma yin de daṅ bral |
| de yi phyir yaṅ ñuṅ du dod ñid bsñen bya ste | | gaṅ źig yon tan rnams kyis rdzogs byed kye ma ci |  54
| gaṅ źig thos nas med ces mya ṅan med pa ste | | gaṅ gis ñuṅ ṅu ’dod de de yi thar pa min |  55
| de ni bkren pa’i lta ba rnams la mi ’jigs śiṅ | | dbaṅ po rnams las gaṅ źig cuṅ zad ’jigs min la |
EH Johnston's translation from the Tibetan:
EHJ54. The suffering which comes to him whose desires are great does not come to him whose desires are small. Therefore smallness of desire should be practised, and especially so by those who seek for the perfection of all the virtues. 
EHJ55. He who does not fear the rich at all is not afraid of the sight of stingy people. For he obtains salvation whose desires are small and who is not cast down on hearing that there is nothing for him.

The Chinese translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26
多求則爲苦 少欲則安隱
Seeking much is suffering itself; small desire, wanting little, is happiness itself.
爲安應少欲 況求眞解脱
If small desire is for the sake of happiness, how much more is it for the seeking of true freedom!
慳吝畏多求 恐損其財寶
The stingy are afraid to seek for more, for fear of losing their wealth.
好施者亦畏 愧財不供足
He who likes to be generous is afraid too, ashamed of his riches, of which he may not provide enough [to others].
是故當小欲 施彼無畏心
Therefore, one should practise small desire and give to others with a confident mind –
由此少欲心 則得解脱道
From this mind that wants little, one attains freedom's path.

Anuruddha Sutta
“When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one with small desire (appicchassa), not for one with strong desire (mahicchassa),’ with reference to what was this said?
Here, when a bhikkhu is one with small desire (appiccho samāno), he does not desire: ‘Let people know me to be one with small desire.’ (“appiccho ti maṁ jāneyyun” ti na icchati) When he is content (santuṭṭho samāno), he does not desire: ‘Let people know me to be one who is content.’ When he resorts to solitude (pavivitto samāno), he does not desire: ‘Let people know me to be one who resorts to solitude.’ When he is energetic (āraddhaviriyo samāno), he does not desire: ‘Let people know me to be energetic.’ When he is mindful (upaṭṭhitasati samāno), he does not desire: ‘Let people know me to be mindful.’ When he is composed (samāhito samāno), he does not desire: ‘Let people know me to be composed.’ When he is wise (paññavā samāno), he does not desire: ‘Let people know me to be wise.’ When he delights in not being wordy (nippapañcārāmo samāno), he does not desire: ‘Let people know me to be one who delights in not being wordy.’ When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one with small desire, not for one with strong desire,’ it is with reference to this that this was said.

Yuikyo-gyo (Bequeathed Teaching Sūtra)
汝等比丘。當知多欲之人。多求利故苦惱亦多。少欲之人無求無欲則無此患。 直爾少欲尚應修習。 何況少欲能生諸善功徳。 少欲之人則無諂曲以求人意。 亦復不爲諸根所牽。 行少欲者心則坦然無所憂畏。 觸事有餘常無不足。 有少欲者則有涅槃。 是名少欲。
Nishijima-Cross translation from Master Dogen's Shobogenzo Chapter 95:
You bhikṣus should know that people of abundant desire abundantly seek gain, and so their suffering also is abundant. People of small desire, being free of seeking and free of desire, are free of this affliction. You should practice and learn small desire just for itself. Still more, small desire can give rise to all virtues: people of small desire never curry favor and bend in order to gain the minds of others. Further, they are not led by the sense organs. Those who practice small desire are level in mind; they are without worries and fears; when they come into contact with things they have latitude; and they are constantly free from dissatisfaction. Those who have small desire just have nirvana. This is called “small desire.”

2. saṁtuṣṭi



2. Contentment
santuṭṭha
saṁtuṣṭi
知足
(chi-soku; knowing satisfaction)

The Tibetan translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
| gal te grol bar ’dod na tshim pa bsñen mdzod daṅ | | tshim pa na ni ’dir bde de ’di chos yin źiṅ |
| tshim pa rnams ni sar yaṅ bde bar gñid log ste | | chim med rnams ni mtho ris na yaṅ rnam par sreg |  56
| phyug kyaṅ chim pa med pa rtag tu dbul po ste | | dbul yaṅ tshim pa daṅ ldan rtag tu phyug po ñid |
| tshim pa med pa sdug pa’i yul rnams daṅ ’bye źiṅ | | tshim pas ’gro ba ṅal ba ldan la mya ṅan byed |  57
EHJ56. If you desire salvation, practise contentment; with contentment there is bliss here and it is the Law. The contented sleep peacefully even on the ground, the discontented are burnt up even in Paradise.
EHJ57. The discontented man, however rich is always poor, and the contented man, however poor, is always rich. The discontented man, seeking the beloved objects of sense, creates suffering for himself by toiling to obtain satiety. 

The Chinese translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
若欲求解脱 亦應習知足 
If one seeks deliverance, one should develop satisfaction too!
知足常歡喜 歡喜即是法
The heart is always joyful when satisfied. Joy is nothing but the Law.
資生具雖陋 知足故常安    
“Even if the provisions one depends upon are lowly, one is always content and satisfied.
不知足之人 雖得生天樂  
以不知足故 苦火常燒心    
Even if someone who is unable to feel satisfied obtains the happiness of rebirth in heaven, the fire of suffering permanently burns his mind, because he is not satisfied.
富而不知足 是亦爲貧苦
“If [you are] wealthy but not satisfied, this too is poverty.
雖貧而知足 是則第一富
When [you are] satisfied even though poor, this is the highest wealth.
其不知足者 五欲境彌廣
“If one is not satisfied, the objects of the five desires become even larger.
猶更求無厭 長夜馳騁苦
One seeks even more and tirelessly hurries toward suffering for a long time.
汲汲懷憂慮 反爲知足哀
In his effort he feels anxiety and, on the other hand, he is pitied by those who are satisfied.

Anuruddha Sutta
“When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who is content (santuṭṭhassa), not for one who is discontent (asantuṭṭhassa),’ with reference to what was this said?
Here, a bhikkhu is content with any kind of robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicines and provisions for the sick. When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who is content, not for one who is discontent,’ it is with reference to this that this was said.

Yuikyo-gyo (Bequeathed Teaching Sūtra)
汝等比丘。若欲脱諸苦惱。當觀知足。 知足之法即是富樂安隱之處。 知足之人雖臥地上猶爲安樂。 不知足者雖處天堂亦不稱意。 不知足者雖富而貧。知足之人雖貧而富。不知足者常爲五欲所牽。爲知足者之所憐愍。 是名知足。
Nishijima-Cross translation from Master Dogen's Shobogenzo Chapter 95:
If you bhikṣus desire to get rid of all kinds of suffering, you should reflect on knowing satisfaction. The practice of knowing satisfaction is the very place of abundance, joy, and peace. People who know satisfaction, even when lying on the ground, are still comfortable and joyful. Those who do not know satisfaction, even when living in a heavenly palace, are still not suited. Those who do not know satisfaction, even if rich, are poor. People who know satisfaction, even if poor, are rich. Those who do not know satisfaction are constantly led by the five desires; they are pitied by those who know satisfaction. This is called to know satisfaction.”

3. praviveka


3. Seclusion
pavivitta
praviveka
樂寂靜
(gyo-jakujo; enjoying peace and quiet)

The Tibetan translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
| źi ba’i bde ba dam pa thob par ’dod rnams kyis | | de ltar tshogs la dga’ ba rnams su ’gyur mi bya |
| źi ba’i bdag ñid gcig tu rgyu phyir ’jig rten na | | brgya byin la sogs lha rnams kyis kyaṅ re ’dod byed |  58
| chags po sdug bsṅal gyi ni gnas pa’i śiṅ yin te | | raṅ gi skye bo la ’am skye la chags pa spaṅs |
| chags pa rnam rgyas sdug bsṅal la ni ’jig rten na | | gñis ’thuṅ ’khogs pa ’dam la bźin du chags par ’gyur | 59
EHJ58. Those who desire to obtain the highest bliss of peace should not give themselves up to the pleasures in such degree. For even Indra and the other gods envy the man in the world who is solely devoted to tranquility. 
EHJ59. Attachment is the roosting-tree of suffering; therefore give up attachment, whether to relations or to strangers. He who has many attachments in the world is stuck fast in suffering, like a decrepit elephant in the mud.

The Chinese translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
不多受眷屬 其心常安隱
If one does not often accept one's retinue, one's mind is always tranquil.
安隱寂靜故 人天悉奉事
Because of tranquility and quietude, all humans and gods serve him.
是故當捨離 親疏二眷屬
That is why one should give up both of the two retinues of close and distant loved ones.
如曠澤孤樹 衆鳥1多集栖
“For instance, suppose many birds and monkeys live on a lone tree in a vast marsh.
多畜衆亦然 長夜受衆苦
The same applies to a large retinue one may care for. For a long time one experiences much suffering.
多衆多纒累 如老象溺泥 
A large crowd means many entanglements, like an old elephant that is sunk in the mud.

Anuruddha Sutta
“When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who resorts to solitude (pavivittassa)1, not for one who delights in company (saṅgaṇikārāmassa),’ with reference to what was this said?
Here, when a bhikkhu resorts to solitude, bhikkhus, bhikkhunīs, male lay followers, female lay followers, kings, royal ministers, heads of other sects, and disciples belonging to other sects approach him. In each case, with a mind that slants, slopes, and inclines to seclusion, withdrawn, delighting in renunciation, he gives them a talk invariably concerned with dismissing them. When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who resorts to solitude, not for one who delights in company,’ it is with reference to this that this was said.

Yuikyo-gyo (Bequeathed Teaching Sūtra)
汝等比丘。若求寂靜無爲安樂。當離憒閙獨處閑居。 靜處之人帝釋諸天所共敬重。 是故當捨己衆他衆。空閑獨處思滅苦本。 若樂衆者則受衆惱。 譬如大樹衆鳥集之則有枯折之患。 世間縛著沒於衆苦。 譬如老象溺泥不能自出。 是名遠離
Nishijima-Cross translation from Master Dogen's Shobogenzo Chapter 95:
If you bhikṣus wish to pursue tranquil and unintentional2 peace and joy, you should depart from noise and live alone in seclusion. People of quiet places are revered alike by the god Śakra and all the gods. For this reason you should abandon your own groups and other groups, live alone in an empty space, and think of dissolving the root of suffering. Those who take pleasure in groups suffer many troubles—like a flock of birds gathering on a great tree and then worrying that it will wither or break. [Those] fettered by and attached to the world are immersed in many kinds of suffering—like an old elephant drowning in mud, unable to get out by itself. This is called “distancing.”


1Pavivitta [pp. of pa+vi+vic] separated, detached, secluded, singled. Often in phrase appiccha santuṭṭha pavivitta referring to an ascetic enjoying the satisfaction of seclusion.
2 無爲 (from the Sanskrit asaṁskṛta, would better be translated as “free of doing” – or, as per Gudo Nishijima's original translation “natural.” 

4. vīrya


4. Energy
viriya
vīrya
勤精進
(gon-shojin; applying energy)


The Tibetan translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
| rtag par rab źugs chu yi rgyun ni mñen na yaṅ | | rdo yi logs la dus su rnam par ’bigs pa ste |
| brtson ’grus kyis ni rñed par dka’ ba ci yaṅ med | | de phyir khur rnams mi ’bor bar ni bzod bgyis daṅ | 60
| gaṅ źig yaṅ yaṅ ṅal bso nas ni srub byed pa | | de yi śiṅ la me ni rñed par sla min źiṅ |
| brtson ’grus brtsams pas rñed par sla bar ’gyur ba ste | | de phyir sbyor ba yod na bya ba ’grub pa ñid |  61
EHJ60. A stream, whose waters ever flow, however softly, in time wears away the surface of the rock. Energy finds nothing impossible of attainment. Therefore be strenuous and do not put down your loads.
EHJ61. The man who stops repeatedly in drilling with fire-sticks finds it hard to get fire from wood, but by the application of energy it comes easily. Therefore where there is diligence, the task is accomplished. 

The Chinese translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
若人勤精進 無利而不獲
If one applies oneself with zeal, there is no benefit one will not obtain.
是故當晝夜 精勤不懈怠
One should therefore be strenuous night and day, not lazy!
山谷微流水 常流故決石 
As the small streams in the valley continuously flow, they hollow out a rock.
鑚火不精進 徒勞而不獲
If one is not strenuous when trying to make a fire with a stick, one toils in vain and does not obtain it.
是故當精進 如壯夫鑚火
Therefore, always be vigorous, like someone in his prime making a fire!

Anuruddha Sutta
“When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who is energetic (āraddhaviriyassa), not for one who is lazy (kusītassa),’ with reference to what was this said?
Here, a bhikkhu has aroused energy (āraddhaviriyo) for abandoning unwholesome qualities (akusalanaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānāya) and acquiring wholesome qualities (kusalanaṁ dhammānaṁ upasampadāya); he is strong, firm in exertion, not casting off the duty of cultivating wholesome qualities. When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who is energetic, not for one who is lazy,’ it is with reference to this that this was said.

Yuikyo-gyo (Bequeathed Teaching Sūtra)
汝等比丘。若勤精進則事無難者。 是故汝等。當勤精進。 是故汝等。當勤精進。 譬如小水常流則能穿石。 若行者之心數數懈廢。譬如鑚火未熱而息。 雖欲得火火難可得。 是名精進 。
Nishijima-Cross translation from Master Dogen's Shobogenzo Chapter 95:
If you bhikṣus practice diligence, nothing will be difficult. For this reason you should practice diligence—as a trickle of water that constantly flows is able to drill through rock. If the mind of a practitioner often tires and quits, that is like [a person] twirling a stick to start a fire and resting before it gets hot: although [the person] wishes to obtain fire, fire is unobtainable. This is called “diligence.”

5. smṛti


5. Mindfulness
sati
smṛti
不忘念
(fu-bo-nen; not losing mindfulness)

The Tibetan translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
| dran pa yod na skyon rnams ’jug pa ma yin te | | dran pa daṅ mñam mdza’ bo med ciṅ bsruṅ ba med |
| dran pa ñams las des par thams cad ñams pa ste | | de phyir lus la soṅ ba’i dran pa spaṅ mi bya | 62
| ji ltar dpa’ bo rnams ni go cha bzuṅ nas su | | dgra bo’i sde la ’jigs pa med rnams ’jug pa ste |
| de bźin lus la dran pa’i go cha bgos nas su | | brtan pa rnams ni yul gyi g-yul rnams la spyod do |  63
EHJ62. When awareness is present, the faults do not enter into activity; there is no friend or protector equal to awareness, and if awareness is lost, all certainly is lost. Therefore do not lose hold of awareness directed towards the body. 
EHJ63. The firm in mind, putting on the armour of awareness towards the body, conduct themselves in the battlefield of the objects of sense like heroes, who gird on their armour and plunge fearlessly into the ranks of their foes.

The Chinese translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
善友雖爲良 不及於正念
A good friend may be fine but he is inferior to right mindfulness.
正念存於心 衆惡悉不入
If right mindfulness exists in one's thoughts, no evil will enter them.
是故修行者 常當念其身
That is why a practitioner should always be mindful of his body!
於身若失念 一切善則忘
If he loses mindfulness of his body, all wholesome [things] may be forgotten.
譬如勇猛將 被鉀御強敵 
When, for instance, a brave leader wears armor, he can withstand a strong enemy.
正念爲重鎧 能制六境賊
With right mindfulness as one's heavy armor, one can restrain the thieves of the six [sense] objects.

Anuruddha Sutta
“When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one with mindfulness established (upaṭṭhitasatissa), not for one who is muddle-minded (muṭṭhassatissā), with reference to what was this said?
Here, a bhikkhu is mindful, possessing supreme mindfulness and alertness, one who remembers and recollects what was done and said long ago. When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one with mindfulness established, not for one who is muddle-minded,’ it is with reference to this that this was said.

Yuikyo-gyo (Bequeathed Teaching Sūtra)
汝等比丘。求善知識求善護助而不忘念。 若不忘念者。諸煩惱賊則不能入。  是故汝等。常當攝念在心。 若失念者則失諸功徳。  若念力堅強。雖入五欲賊中不爲所害。 譬如著鎧入陣則無所畏。 是名不忘念 
Nishijima-Cross translation from Master Dogen's Shobogenzo Chapter 95:
For you bhikṣus who seek good counselors and seek their good auspices, there is nothing like not losing mindfulness. If people possess [the ability] not to lose mindfulness, the bandits of the afflictions are unable to invade them. For this reason, you constantly should regulate thoughts and keep them in their place in the mind. Those who lose mindfulness lose all virtues. If your power of mindfulness is solid and strong, even if you go among the bandits of the five desires you will not be harmed by them—it is like entering a battlefield clad in armor
and having nothing to fear. This is called “not to lose mindfulness.”

6. samādhi

6. Meditative stillness
samādhi
samādhi
修禪定
(shu-zenjo; cultivating meditative stillness)

The Tibetan translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
| mñam par gźag pa’i blo daṅ sems ni yoṅs bsdams śiṅ | | ’jig rten dag gi skye daṅ ’god pa śes pa ste |
| de phyir tiṅ ṅe ’dzin la yoṅs su ’jug bya ste | | tiṅ ’dzin rab tu thob pa’i sems nad yod ma yin | 64
| rnam par ’thor ba’i chu ni rnam par ’dzin don du | | ji ltar ’bad pas doṅ daṅ ’bos ni byed pa ste |
| ye śes chu ni gnas pa’i don du tiṅ ṅe ’dzin | | de ltar doṅ dad ’obs daṅ mtshuṅs par rab tu bstan |  65
EHJ64. Therefore, keeping your feelings level and restraining your minds, know the origin and passing away of the world and practise concentration. For no mental ills touch him who has obtained concentration of mind.
EHJ65. Just as men diligently make embankments for holding up water that is overflowing, so concentration is declared to be like the embankment for bringing the water of knowledge to a stand. 

The Chinese translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
正定撿覺心 觀世間生滅
Right concentration regulates an insightful mind, and it contemplates birth and extinction in the world.
是故修行者 當習三摩提
That is why a practitioner should practice samādhi.
三昧已寂靜 能滅一切苦
In samādhi one is quiet, able to extinguish all suffering.

Anuruddha Sutta
“When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who is composed (samāhita)1, not for one who is unconcentrated (asamāhita),’ with reference to what was this said?
Here, secluded from sensual pleasures (vivicc' eva kāmehi) . . . a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the fourth jhāna. When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who is concentrated, not for one who is unconcentrated,’ it is with reference to this that this was said.

Yuikyo-gyo (Bequeathed Teaching Sūtra)
汝等比丘。若攝心者心則在定。 心在定故能知世間生滅法相。 是故汝等。常當精勤修集諸定。 若得定者心則不亂。  譬如惜水之家善治堤塘。 行者亦爾。 爲智慧水故善修禪定令不漏失。 是名爲定
Nishijima-Cross translation from Master Dogen's Shobogenzo Chapter 95:
If you bhikṣus regulate the mind, the mind will then exist in the balanced state. Because the mind exists in the balanced state you will be able to know the Dharma form of the arising and vanishing of the world. For this reason you constantly should be diligent in practicing all forms of balance. When a person gets the balanced state, the mind does not dissipate. It is like a household that values water attentively repairing a dike. Practitioners also are like that. For the sake of the water of wisdom, we attentively practice the balanced state of dhyāna and prevent [the water of wisdom] from leaking away. This is called the balanced state.”

7. prajñā



7. Wisdom
pañña
prajñā
修智慧
(shu-chie; cultivating wisdom)

The Tibetan translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
| śes rab ldan pa yoṅs su ’dzin pa btaṅ ba yi | | chos ’di naṅ la mchog tu gźol ba dag gis te |
| de ltar gnas pa’i grol ba yod ciṅ ’di yi ni | | phyin ci log ni khyim pa ma yin dge sloṅ min | 66
| śes rab dga’ daṅ ’chi ba’i mtsho chen dag la gru | | rmoṅs pa’i mun pa rnams la ji ltar sgron ma ste |
| naṅ rnams thams cad ’joms pa dag gi sman yin źiṅ | | ñon moṅs ljon śiṅ ’joms byed mtshon cha rnon po yin | 67
| de phyir thos pa bsam pa bsgom pa rnams kyi ni | | śes rab rnam par ’phel la rab tu ’jug par bya |
| gaṅ gi śes rab raṅ bźin lta byed mig yod pa | | de ni mig daṅ bral yaṅ mig daṅ ldan pa ñid | 68

EHJ66. The wise man, who abides giving away his possessions and entirely devoted to this Law in his heart, is saved; how much more then should the mendicant, who has no home, be saved? 
EHJ67. Mystic wisdom is the boat on the great ocean of old age and death, a lamp, as it were, in the darkness of delusion, the medicine that smites all illnesses, the sharp axe that cuts down the trees of the sins. 
EHJ68. Therefore practise learning, knowledge, and meditation 聞思修 for the increase of mystic wisdom; for he who has the eye that is of the nature of mystic wisdom, though without ocular vision, has indeed sight. 

The Chinese translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
智慧能照明 遠離於攝受
When wisdom can shine brightly, one is far from any grasping.
等觀内思惟 隨順趣正法
It equally contemplates one's inner considerations. By following [wisdom],
one advances toward the Right Law.
在家及出家 斯應由此路
The householder and the one who has gone forth, both should follow this path!
生老死大海 智慧爲輕舟
On the great ocean of birth, old age, and death, wisdom is a light boat.
無明大闇冥 智慧爲明燈
In the great darkness of ignorance, wisdom is a bright lamp.
諸纒結垢病 智慧爲良藥
For the impure illnesses of the fetters, wisdom is the finest medicine.
煩惱棘刺林 智慧爲利斧
In the thorny forest of afflictions, wisdom is a sharp axe.
癡愛駃水流 智慧爲橋梁 
Being deluded, one loves the swift current. Wisdom is a bridge.
是故當勤習 聞思修生慧
That is why one should diligently practice wisdom produced from learning, from reflection, and from cultivation!
成就三種慧 雖盲慧眼通
If one accomplishes the three kinds of wisdom, his eye of wisdom is open, even though he may be blind.
無慧心虚僞 是則非出家
When without wisdom one's thoughts are false, one is not someone who has gone forth.

Anuruddha Sutta
“When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who is wise (paññavato), not for one who is unwise (dupaññassā),’ with reference to what was this said?
Here, a bhikkhu is wise; he possesses the wisdom (paññava hoti) that discerns arising and passing away, which is noble and penetrative and leads to the complete destruction of suffering (ariyāya nibbedhikāya sammā-dukkhakkayagāminiyā). When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who is wise, not for one who is unwise,’ it is with reference to this that this was said.

Yuikyo-gyo (Bequeathed Teaching Sūtra)
汝等比丘。若有智慧則無貪著。 常自省察不令有失。 是則於我法中能得解脱。 若不爾者既非道人。又非白衣。無所名也。 實智慧者則是度老病死海堅牢船也。 亦是無明黒闇大明燈也。一切病苦之良藥也。伐煩惱樹者之利斧也。 是故汝等。當以聞思修慧而自増益。 若人有智慧之照。雖無天眼而是明見人也。 是爲智慧
Nishijima-Cross translation from Master Dogen's Shobogenzo Chapter 95:
If you bhikṣus have wisdom, then you will be without greed and attachment. By constantly reflecting on and observing yourself, you will prevent [wisdom] from being lost. This is just to be able, within my Dharma, to attain liberation. If you are not so, already you are different from people of the truth and also different from those clothed in white; there is nothing to call you. Truly, wisdom is a sturdy ship in which to cross the ocean of aging, sickness, and death. Again, it is a great bright torch for the darkness of ignorance, it is good medicine for all sick people, and it is a sharp ax to fell the trees of anguish. For this reason, you should hear, consider, and practice wisdom and thereby develop yourself. If a human being possesses the light of wisdom, he or she is—although with eyes of flesh—a human being of clear vision. This is called “wisdom.”

8. niṣprapañca


No. 8
Not Making Things Up
nippapañca
niṣprapañca
不戲論
(fu-keron; not engaging in idle discussion)

The Tibetan translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
| sems la rgyu ba’i spros pa de daṅ de rnams kyis | | khyim na gnas pa spaṅs nas kyaṅ ni grol min ñid |
| mchog tu źi ba thob par ’dod pa rnams kyis ’di | | śes nas spros pa med pa rnams su ’gyur bar bya |  69
EHJ69. Although a man has left his home, yet, if he is engaged in the varied activities of the mind, he is not saved; those who desire to obtain the supreme tranquility should know this and become free from all activities.

The Chinese translation of Aśvaghoṣa's Buddhacarita Canto 26:
是故當覺知 離諸虚僞法     
“Therefore, know and leave unreal things, [CW: any false factor]
逮得微妙樂 寂靜安隱處
and reach subtle happiness, the quiet and tranquil state!

Anuruddha Sutta
“When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who delights in non-proliferation (nippapañcārāmassa), who takes delight in non-proliferation, not for one who delights in proliferation (papañcārāmassa), who takes delight in proliferation,’ with reference to what was this said?
Here, a bhikkhu’s mind launches out (cittam pakkhandati) upon the cessation of proliferation (papañcanirodhe), becomes placid, settles down, and is liberated in it (vimuccati). When it was said: ‘This Dhamma is for one who delights in non-proliferation, who takes delight in non-proliferation, not for one who delights in proliferation, who takes delight in proliferation,’ it is with reference to this that this was said.”

Yuikyo-gyo (Bequeathed Teaching Sūtra)
汝等比丘。若種種戲論其心則亂。 雖復出家猶未得脱。 是故比丘。當急捨離亂心戲論。若汝欲得寂滅樂者。唯當善滅戲論之患。 是名不戲論 
Nishijima-Cross translation from Master Dogen's Shobogenzo Chapter 95:
If you bhikṣus engage in all kinds of idle discussion your mind will be disturbed. Although you have left family life, still you will be unable to get free. For this reason, bhikṣus, you should immediately throw away disturbing idle discussion. If you wish to attain the joy of serenity you should just inhibit well the fault of idle discussion. This is called “not to engage in idle discussion.”