Monday, May 5, 2014

BUDDHACARITA 10.26: What You Know or Who You Know?

⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−   Upajāti (Indravajrā)
evaṁ hi na syāt-svajanāvamardaḥ kāla-krameṇāpi śama-śrayā śrīḥ |
tasmāt-kuruṣva praṇayaṁ mayi tvaṁ sadbhiḥ sahīyā hi satāṁ samddhiḥ || 10.26

For in this way there will be no inflicting of pain on your own kin,

And royal power will come peacefully 
and in a timely and orderly manner.

Do me this kindness, therefore,

Because in association with the good is there growth of the good.

EHJ notes that the text of b [the 2nd pāda] is undoubtedly corrupt and neither T nor C are any help in its reconstruction; conjecture in the absence of further light is hopeless.

EBC translates the 2nd pāda: “and by the mere lapse of time imperial power at last flies for refuge to the tranquil mind;”
EHJ: “and in course of time sovereignty will come to you peacefully.”
PO: "and sovereignty also will come to you peacefully and in the proper sequence." 

With regard to the content of Bimbisāra's words, the main gist of which seems in any event to be contained in the 4th pāda, a contrast may be drawn with what the Buddha tells Nanda about growth at the end of SN Canto 16:

tad-vīryaṃ kuru śāntaye viniyataṃ vīrye hi sarva-rddhayaḥ // SN16.98 //
So direct your energy in pursuit of peace, for in directed energy, 
undoubtedly, lies all growth."

We are caused to reflect, again, then, that in the background two very different conceptions of dharma are operating. In the dharma of kings, growth comes from making the right connections, forging astute political alliances, et cetera. In the buddha's dharma of liberation, growth comes from making effort, on an individual basis, in the right direction. And to that end, the emphasis is conspicuous that the Buddha places on the virtue of solitary practice.

tasmāc-caran caro 'smīti sthito 'smīti ca dhiṣṭhitaḥ /
Therefore walking with the awareness that "I am walking" 
and standing with the awareness that "I am standing" --
evam-ādiṣu kāleṣu smṛtim-ādhātum-arhasi // 14.45 //
Upon such moments as these, you should bring mindfulness to bear.

yogānulomaṃ vijanaṃ viśabdaṃ śayyāsanaṃ saumya tathā bhajasva /
In this manner, my friend, repair to a place suited for practice, 
free of people and free of noise, a place for lying down and sitting;
kāyasya kṛtvā hi vivekam-ādau sukho 'dhigantuṃ manaso vivekaḥ // 14.46 //
For by first achieving separateness of the body 
it is easy to obtain separateness of the mind.

alabdha-cetaḥ-praśamaḥ sa-rāgo yo na pracāraṃ bhajate viviktam /
The man of redness, the tranquillity of his mind unrealized, 
who does not take to a playground of solitude,
sa kṣaṇyate hy-apratilabdha-mārgaś-carann-ivorvyāṃ bahu-kaṇṭakāyām//14.47//
Is injured as though, unable to regain a track, 
he is walking on very thorny ground.

adṛṣṭa-tattvena parīkṣakeṇa sthitena citre viṣaya-pracāre /
For a seeker who fails to see reality 
but stands in the tawdry playground of objects,
cittaṃ niṣeddhuṃ na sukhena śakyaṃ kṛṣṭādako gaur-iva sasya-madhyāt//SN14.48//
It is no easier to rein in the mind than to drive a foraging bull away from corn.

anīryamāṇas-tu yathānilena praśāntim-āgacchati citra-bhānuḥ /
But just as a bright fire dies down when not fanned by the wind,
alpena yatnena tathā vivikteṣv-aghaṭṭitaṃ śāntim-upaiti cetaḥ // 14.49 //
So too, in solitary places, does an unstirred mind easily come to quiet.

kva-cid-bhuktvā yat-tad vasanam-api yat-tat-parihito
One who eats anything at any place, and wears any clothes,
vasann-ātmārāmaḥ kva-cana vijane yo 'bhiramate /
Who dwells in enjoyment of his own being 
and loves to be anywhere without people:
kṛtārthaḥ sa jñeyaḥ śama-sukha-rasa-jñaḥ kṛta-matiḥ
He is to be known as a success, 
a knower of the taste of peace and ease, whose mind is made up --
pareṣāṃ saṃsargaṃ pariharati yaḥ kaṇṭakam-iva // 14.50 //
He avoids involvement with others like a thorn.

yadi dvandvārāme jagati viṣaya-vyagra-hṛdaye
If, in a world that delights in duality and is at heart distracted by objects,
vivikte nirdvando viharati kṛtī śānta-hṛdayaḥ /
He roves in solitude, free of duality, a man of action, his heart at peace,
tataḥ pītvā prajñā-rasam-amṛtavat-tṛpta-hṛdayo
Then he drinks the essence of wisdom as if it were the deathless nectar 
and his heart is filled.
viviktaḥ saṃsaktaṃ viṣaya-kṛpaṇaṃ śocati jagat // 14.51 //
Separately he sorrows for the clinging, object-needy world.

vasañ-śūnyāgāre yadi satatam-eko 'bhiramate
If he constantly abides as a unity, in an empty abode,
yadi kleśotpādaiḥ saha na ramate śatrubhir-iva /
If he is no fonder of arisings of affliction than he is of enemies,
carann-ātmārāmo yadi ca pibati prīti-salilaṃ
And if, going rejoicing in the self, he drinks the water of joy,
tato bhuṅkte śreṣṭhaṃ tridaśa-pati-rājyād-api sukham // SN14.52 //
Then greater than dominion over thirty gods is the happiness he enjoys.

In light of the contrast highlighted above, what are we to make of the canto title śreṇyābhigamanaḥ, which ostensibly means “Śreṇya's Drawing Near”? 

On the evidence of today's verse King Śreṇya, though he has drawn near to the bodhisattva and is sitting beside him, seems to be straying further away. The one who is continuing to draw near, just sitting there immovably like Mount Kailāsa, is only the bodhisattva himself. For this reason I think I will translate śreṇyābhigamanaḥ as “Śreṇya / Drawing Closer,” thus mirroring the title of Canto 6, “Chandaka / Turning Back.”

evam: ind. thus
hi: for
na: not
syāt = 3rd pers. sg. opt. as: to be
svajanāvamardaḥ (nom. sg. m.): causing of pain to a person of one's own kind
svajana: m. one's own people
avamarda: m. oppression , giving pain
ava- √mṛd: " to grind down " , crush , tread down

kāla-krameṇa: ind. (instr.) in process of time
kāla-krama: m. lapse of time
krama: m. a step ; uninterrupted or regular progress , order , series , regular arrangement , succession
api: even (emphatic)
śama-śrayā (nom. sg. f.): finding protection in peace [EHJ/PO: peacefully]
śama: m. tranquillity , calmness ; peace
śraya: m. (fr. śri) approaching for protection , asylum , refuge , protection
śrīḥ (nom. sg.): f. light ; riches, high rank , power , might , majesty , royal dignity

tasmāt: ind. therefore
kuruṣva = 2nd pers. sg. imperative kṛ: to do
praṇayam (acc. sg.): m. affection , confidence in (loc.) , love , attachment , friendship , favour
mayi (loc. sg.): to me
tvam (nom. sg. m.): you

sadbhiḥ (inst. pl.): m. good or honest or wise or respectable people
sahīyā (nom. sg. f.): EHJ/PO “association with”;
EHJ note: sahīyā is a curious word only known to Buddhism, viz. Divy., 312,5.
hi: for
satām (gen. pl.): m. good or honest or wise or respectable people
samṛddhiḥ (nom. sg.): f. great prosperity or success , growth , increase , thriving , welfare , fortune , perfection , excellence
sam- √ ṛdh: to succeed well , prosper , flourish , increase or grow greatly

既免逼親嫌 時過隨所從
當體我誠言 貪徳爲良隣

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