Thursday, June 17, 2010

SAUNDARANANDA 2.8: Making All Meaningful (provisional effort)

kRta-shaastraH kRt'-aastro vaa
jaato vaa vipule kule
a-kRt'-aartho na dadRshe
yasya darshanam eyivaan

- - = = - = = =
= = = - - = - =
- - = = - - - =
= - = - - = - =

2.8
Whether skilled in use of book or skilled in use of sword,

Whether born into an eminent family or not,

No-one was seen as useless,

Who came into his presence.

COMMENT:
Two or three internet sources confirm that eyivaan translates as got or obtained, so yasya darshanam eyivaan would seem to mean "obtained a meeting/audience with him" or "came into his presence." What the grammar of eyivaan is, however, I have not been able to ascertain -- and if jiblet is reading this, I would be grateful for his input.

Without knowing the grammar of eyivaan, I don't understand the grammar of whole second half of the verse -- and so the translation above is mainly guesswork and is even more provisional than usual.

EHJ also seemed unsure how to understand the verse, and added as a note to his translation:
"This probably means not only that the king granted all requests made to him in audience, but that the mere sight of him brought good luck."


If, as I have been intuiting, the king symbolizes a central controlling agent in a hierarchical system then the point might be there was no disconnect between this central agent and the periphery; rather, the agent at the head of the hierarchy imbued all parts with a sense of direction, purpose, meaning, or in short usefulness.

EH Johnston:
Whoever came into his sight, whether scholar, warrior or man of high degree, was fortunate in his business.

Linda Covill:
No one who came to see him, whether accomplished in learning or weaponry or born to the nobility, failed to achieve his goals.


VOCABULARY:
kRta-shaastraH (nom. sg. m.): one accomplished in scripture/science
kRta: mfn. done, accomplished, obtained, cultivated etc.
shaastra: n. teaching , instruction ; any instrument of teaching , any manual or compendium of rules , any book or treatise , (esp.) any religious or scientific treatise , any sacred book or composition of divine authority (applicable even to the veda ); a body of teaching (in general) , scripture , science
kRt'-aastraH (nom. sg. m.): one accomplished in weaponry
astra: n. a missile weapon , bolt , arrow ; sword ; bow
vaa: or

jaataH (nom. sg. m.): born
vaa: or
vipule (loc. sg.): mfn. large , extensive , wide , great, noble (as a race)
kule (loc. sg.): n. a herd , troop , flock , assemblage , multitude , number ; n. a race , family , community , tribe ; the residence of a family , seat of a community , inhabited country ; a house , abode ; a noble or eminent family or race ; high station ; the body ; the front , forepart

a-kRt'-aarthaH (nom. sg. m.): being of unaccomplished purpose, his aim not being accomplished, his effort being futile, being meaningless, being useless
a-kRta: not accomplished
artha: aim , purpose (ifc. " for the sake of , on account of , in behalf of , for ")
na: not
dadRshe = 3rd pers. sg. (aatmane-pada) perfect. dRsh: to see, behold , meet

yasya (gen. sg.): of whom, of him [the king]
darshanam: n. seeing , observing , looking ; visiting ; n. audience , meeting (with gen.) ; n. experiencing ;n. the eye; n. the becoming visible or known , presence; n. appearance (before the judge)
eyivaan: got, obtained

4 comments:

jiblet said...

Hi Mike,

Perhaps eyivaan is the perfect active participle (nom. sing.) - usually described as 'the participle in vaaMs' - of the root /i, to go? Such participles are rare, I read; perhaps that's why I've not been able to find rules for modification of the root, to see if /i becomes eyi before the addition of vaan, and so is, in fact, the root. I might be way off, but the perfect active participle is the only -aan ending I'm aware of (apart from the masc. acc. plural of nouns, which can't be right, here).

If/when I realise I've made a stupid mistake, I'll let you know, Mike.

Mike Cross said...

Thanks jiblet,

Among various contenders I considered, aa-√i, to reach, to attain, looked like the favourite. But I couldn't find confirmation of exactly how it became eyivaan.

From what you write, I am guessing that eyivaan is the perfect active participle (nom. sg.) of aa-√i. That would fit with the translations of EHJ and LC, and also with the translations I found on the internet of eyivaan as "got" and "obtained."

Thanks again... will look forward to receiving confirmation or otherwise in due course...

jiblet said...

I didn't even consdider aa-i, Mike! I was stuck, confused, in perfect tense reduplication mode.

My guess is that you're right. The sandhi works. And as the meaning fits with the other translations you've found, I can think of no other solution. Not that there might not be one...but what we've arrived at seems correct to me.

Mike Cross said...

Many thanks jiblet,

In a scientific spirit, let us go with that understanding until such time as it is falsified by any new information that comes to light.