Thursday, June 17, 2010

SAUNDARANANDA 2.8: Making All Meaningful (provisional effort)

kRta-shaastraH kRt'-aastro vaa
jaato vaa vipule kule
a-kRt'-aartho na dadRshe
yasya darshanam eyivaan

- - = = - = = =
= = = - - = - =
- - = = - - - =
= - = - - = - =

Whether skilled in use of book or skilled in use of sword,

Whether born into an eminent family or not,

No-one was seen as useless,

Who came into his presence.

Two or three internet sources confirm that eyivaan translates as got or obtained, so yasya darshanam eyivaan would seem to mean "obtained a meeting/audience with him" or "came into his presence." What the grammar of eyivaan is, however, I have not been able to ascertain -- and if jiblet is reading this, I would be grateful for his input.

Without knowing the grammar of eyivaan, I don't understand the grammar of whole second half of the verse -- and so the translation above is mainly guesswork and is even more provisional than usual.

EHJ also seemed unsure how to understand the verse, and added as a note to his translation:
"This probably means not only that the king granted all requests made to him in audience, but that the mere sight of him brought good luck."

If, as I have been intuiting, the king symbolizes a central controlling agent in a hierarchical system then the point might be there was no disconnect between this central agent and the periphery; rather, the agent at the head of the hierarchy imbued all parts with a sense of direction, purpose, meaning, or in short usefulness.

EH Johnston:
Whoever came into his sight, whether scholar, warrior or man of high degree, was fortunate in his business.

Linda Covill:
No one who came to see him, whether accomplished in learning or weaponry or born to the nobility, failed to achieve his goals.

kRta-shaastraH (nom. sg. m.): one accomplished in scripture/science
kRta: mfn. done, accomplished, obtained, cultivated etc.
shaastra: n. teaching , instruction ; any instrument of teaching , any manual or compendium of rules , any book or treatise , (esp.) any religious or scientific treatise , any sacred book or composition of divine authority (applicable even to the veda ); a body of teaching (in general) , scripture , science
kRt'-aastraH (nom. sg. m.): one accomplished in weaponry
astra: n. a missile weapon , bolt , arrow ; sword ; bow
vaa: or

jaataH (nom. sg. m.): born
vaa: or
vipule (loc. sg.): mfn. large , extensive , wide , great, noble (as a race)
kule (loc. sg.): n. a herd , troop , flock , assemblage , multitude , number ; n. a race , family , community , tribe ; the residence of a family , seat of a community , inhabited country ; a house , abode ; a noble or eminent family or race ; high station ; the body ; the front , forepart

a-kRt'-aarthaH (nom. sg. m.): being of unaccomplished purpose, his aim not being accomplished, his effort being futile, being meaningless, being useless
a-kRta: not accomplished
artha: aim , purpose (ifc. " for the sake of , on account of , in behalf of , for ")
na: not
dadRshe = 3rd pers. sg. (aatmane-pada) perfect. dRsh: to see, behold , meet

yasya (gen. sg.): of whom, of him [the king]
darshanam: n. seeing , observing , looking ; visiting ; n. audience , meeting (with gen.) ; n. experiencing ;n. the eye; n. the becoming visible or known , presence; n. appearance (before the judge)
eyivaan: got, obtained


jiblet said...

Hi Mike,

Perhaps eyivaan is the perfect active participle (nom. sing.) - usually described as 'the participle in vaaMs' - of the root /i, to go? Such participles are rare, I read; perhaps that's why I've not been able to find rules for modification of the root, to see if /i becomes eyi before the addition of vaan, and so is, in fact, the root. I might be way off, but the perfect active participle is the only -aan ending I'm aware of (apart from the masc. acc. plural of nouns, which can't be right, here).

If/when I realise I've made a stupid mistake, I'll let you know, Mike.

Mike Cross said...

Thanks jiblet,

Among various contenders I considered, aa-√i, to reach, to attain, looked like the favourite. But I couldn't find confirmation of exactly how it became eyivaan.

From what you write, I am guessing that eyivaan is the perfect active participle (nom. sg.) of aa-√i. That would fit with the translations of EHJ and LC, and also with the translations I found on the internet of eyivaan as "got" and "obtained."

Thanks again... will look forward to receiving confirmation or otherwise in due course...

jiblet said...

I didn't even consdider aa-i, Mike! I was stuck, confused, in perfect tense reduplication mode.

My guess is that you're right. The sandhi works. And as the meaning fits with the other translations you've found, I can think of no other solution. Not that there might not be one...but what we've arrived at seems correct to me.

Mike Cross said...

Many thanks jiblet,

In a scientific spirit, let us go with that understanding until such time as it is falsified by any new information that comes to light.