Tuesday, April 27, 2010

SAUNDARANANDA 1.20: A Relative Problem

arha-ruupaa hy an-arhasya
mah"-aatmaanash cal'-aatmanaH
praajNaaH prajNaa-vimuktasya
bhraatRvyasya yaviiyasaH

= - = = - = = -
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For they were deserving where undeserving was he:

They were magnanimous where fickle was he:

They were bright where brainless was he:

Their younger half-brother.

According to EHJ, bhraatRvya (lit. father's brother's son) must mean 'half-brother' here, unless the versions of the story known to Ashvaghosha differed from the known ones.

Either way, the point is that the princes had a junior relative -- a half-brother or cousin -- who was less endowed than they were with virtues, like magnanimity and intelligence, that befit a prince or a king.

EH Johnston:
For, being worthy where their younger half-brother was unworthy, high-souled where he was pusillanimous, and wise where he was foolish,

Linda Covill:
The worthy princes, large-natured and wise, could not stomach the rank that had come to their unworthy, fickle-minded and foolish younger half-brother as his mother's dowry, and observing their father's vow, had retreated to the forest.

arha-ruupaaH (nom. pl.): worthy, deserving
arha: mfn. meriting , deserving , worthy of, having a claim or being entitled to (acc. or Inf. or in comp.)
ruupa: n. form, shape, figure (sometimes used after an adj. or p.p. to emphasize its meaning or almost redundantly)
hi: for
an-arhasya (gen. sg.): unworthy ; inadequate , unsuitable

mah"-aatmaanaH (nom. pl.): " high-souled " , magnanimous , having a great or noble nature , high-minded , noble ; highly gifted , exceedingly wise ; eminent , mighty , powerful , distinguished
mahat: great
aatman: m. self; essence , nature , character , peculiarity (often ifc.)
cal'-aatmanaH (gen. sg.): mfn. fickle-minded
cala: mfn. moving , trembling , shaking , loose ; unsteady , fluctuating , perishable ; disturbed , confused
aatman: m. self; essence , nature , character , peculiarity (often ifc.)

praajNaaH (nom. pl.): mfn. intellectual ; intelligent , wise , clever
prajNaa-vimuktasya (gen. sg.): devoid of wisdom
prajNaa: f. wisdom , intelligence , knowledge , discrimination , judgement
vimukta: mfn. set free , liberated (esp. from mundane existence) , freed or delivered or escaped from (abl. instr. , or ifc.)

bhraatRvyasya = gen. sg. bhraatRvya: m. a father's brother's son , cousin
yaviiyasaH = gen. sg. yaviiyas: mfn. (compar. of yuvan) younger ; m. a younger brother

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